By Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
In Aerosol Optics, Alexander Kokhanovsky offers a complete overview of obtainable ideas for the distant sensing of aerosols. even if in general satellite tv for pc distant sensing is taken into account, ground-based strategies also are mentioned. The paintings is based at the stable foundation of radiative move concept, coupled with Maxwell concept for the calculation of the scattering homes of small debris. particularly, the writer describes innovations for the decision of the column focus of aerosol debris and their optical sizing utilizing spaceborne optical instrumentation. nearly all of the concepts defined during this ebook use a so-called "library method". this system depends the precalculated top-of-atmosphere reflectances (TOAR) for vaious atmospheric aerosol kinds. The comparability of measured and calculated TOARS permits one to represent the optically-equivalent aerosol state.
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Additional resources for Aerosol Optics: Light Absorption and Scattering by Particles in the Atmosphere
They make it possible to avoid tedious numerical calculations and to make quick estimates of corresponding optical parameters. Introducing the volumetric concentration of particles, c ¼ N V ; one derives for absorbing particles with radii much smaller than the wavelength: kabs ðkÞ ¼ cDðnÞaðkÞ: This expression differs from that for homogeneous media without scattering due to the presence of the coefficient D: This coefficient (see above) is equal to one at n ¼ 1, as it should be. 5 at n ¼ 2: Therefore more reflective particles are less absorbing.
The mixing rule for the phase function of a mixture has the following form: 36 2 Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol ð1Þ pðhÞ ¼ ð2Þ ð3Þ v1 ksca pð1Þ ðhÞ þ v2 ksca pð2Þ ðhÞ þ v3 ksca pð3Þ ðhÞ ð1Þ ð2Þ ð3Þ v1 ksca þ v2 ksca þ v3 ksca ; which underlines the fact that the scattered light intensities and not the phase functions must be added in the process of creation of the mixture. In a similar way, we have for the asymmetry parameter: ð1Þ g¼ ð2Þ ð3Þ v1 ksca gð1Þ þ v2 ksca gð2Þ þ v3 ksca gð3Þ ð1Þ ð2Þ ð3Þ v1 ksca þ v2 ksca þ v3 ksca : The equations given above are easily generalized for any number of aerosol models i.
In derivations one must account for the fact that, as known from the electrodynamics, the electric field inside a spherical particle with the radius a ( k (and also k jm À 1ja ( kÞ is given by the following simple equation: 26 2 Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol 3 ~ E0 : m2 þ 2 À Á ~¼ E ~0 at m ¼ 1 as one might exIt follows that internal and incident fields coincide E pect. In the case of large spherical particles (under assumptions x ! 1; 2ax ! 1Þ all light, which penetrates the surface of a particle is absorbed.