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By M L Anson; John T Edsall

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Motile fibers such as cilia, flagella, and sperm tails, all of which extend from the cell, offer particularly favorable material for ultrastructure analysis, for they can be studied with the EM very conveniently, being obtainable free of protoplasmic material which obsaires the electron micrograph (EMG). All of these structures show positive form birefringence (in the case of cilia the lipid may, under certain conditions, reverse the sign of birefringence). Recent EM studies of Schmitt, Hall, and Jakus (1943)show that the submicroscopic protein structures responsible for this birefringence are not isolated, oriented micellar rodlets with asymmetry ratios of the order of 10 or 20, as haa been pictured by analogy with the supposed structure of muscle fibers, but are evenly contoured parallel fibrils 300-500 A wide and extending the full length of the cilium, flagellum, or sperm tail (Fig.

Klemperer, Pollack, and Baehr (1941, 1942) group certain of these pathological states under the term ‘diffuse collagen diseases’ and suggest that the major causal factor is an altered colloidal state of collagen, particularly of the ground substance. Biochemical and biophysical investigation of these alterations may prove of considerable clinical value. STRUCTURAL PROTEINS OF CELLS AND TISSUES 49 la. CHEMISTRY In tissues collagen is closely associated with mucoproteins and other substances from which it must be freed.

Klemperer, Pollack, and Baehr (1941, 1942) group certain of these pathological states under the term ‘diffuse collagen diseases’ and suggest that the major causal factor is an altered colloidal state of collagen, particularly of the ground substance. Biochemical and biophysical investigation of these alterations may prove of considerable clinical value. STRUCTURAL PROTEINS OF CELLS AND TISSUES 49 la. CHEMISTRY In tissues collagen is closely associated with mucoproteins and other substances from which it must be freed.

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