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By Chase Robinson

'Abd al-Malik, who got here to prominence through the moment civil struggle of early Islam, governed the Islamic empire from 692 till 705. not just did he effectively suppress uprising in the Muslim global and extend its frontiers, yet in lots of respects he based the empire itself. by way of approximately seven hundred, the kinds of a brand new realm, which stretched from North Arica within the west to Iran within the east, has taken transparent form with 'Abd al-Malik at its head. This booklet covers the beginnings and upward thrust to energy of this immensely influential caliph, in addition to his spiritual regulations and strategies, his financial, administrative and armed forces reforms, and his legacy, together with the Dome of the Rock, the oldest surviving enormous construction erected via Muslims.

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And after his death he continued to exert enormous authority over how Muslims saw the world and themselves – so much so, that by the ninth century his conduct had come to function paradigmatically for the law. For Muslims of that and subsequent periods, the law consisted of what God had said in the text assembled out of His revelations to Muhammad (the Qur’an) and what Muhammad had said and done as recorded in collections of Traditions (the hadith) – tens of thousands of them. How does one effect a marriage contract?

In fact, it is not going too far to suggest that Marwan and the Marwanids owe at least some of their great success to serendipity: the “caliph”-to-be had only just recently arrived in Syria, having been expelled from Medina. In any event, Marwan quickly proved that he was the right man in the right place. As our account tells us, he led an army that defeated al-Dahhak and his supporters in Marj Rahit, a plain near Damascus. His power now secure, Marwan marched south, entered Damascus, and received the oath of allegiance there.

Since Yazid had no adult son to succeed him, the Arabs were in turmoil. Those in Medina and the East proclaimed ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr; those in Damascus and Palestine remained loyal to the family of Mu‘awiya; in Syria and Phoenicia they followed Dahhak b. Qays, who came to Damascus and pretended to be fighting for ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr. Each country chose someone. In the midst of all this arose Marwan b. al-Hakam, who proposed drawing lots for the caliphate. His name came up; Dahhak was not content with this, but was defeated by Marwan at Marj Rahit.

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